After a little research, I learned you can't break your TS1000 by putting the 9v power plug in the wrong jack. This makes sense considering the 3 identical jacks on the TS1000 and how close they are.
I couldn't find any help with my audio problem online, so I started experimenting with the mini phone plug to phono (headphone to RCA) adapter that connects to my USB A/V capture dongle. As it turns out, the problem is with how the stereo adapter connects to the mono jack of the TS1000. One of the lines is crossed or grounded which is making a humming buzz loud enough to cover up the data audio. Connecting the tip of one of the phono plugs to the collar of the phono jack on my USB capture device gets rid of the humming. The data audio is then clearly audible (sounds like a modem). In the end, I was eventually able to SAVE a program on my laptop using Audacity, amplify it, then play it back. I haven't been able to get the TS1000 to LOAD the data again though. I'm sure many people have done this before, so I will do some more research. Also, I will try to pick up the correct mono adapter plug tomorrow.